The sources listed below were consulted during the research for "Wrongly Executed?" Newspaper articles were too numerous to be listed individually on this page. It was our objective to provide useful links to Internet sources. Web addresses change frequently, however, and some of the sites used in research had moved or shut down before this page could be brought online.
- ---, Record and Guide, Volume LXXV, Feb. 18, 1905, New York: C.W. Sweet, 1905, p. 365; March 11, 1905, p. 538; March 18, 1905, p. 590; June 24, 1905, p. 1395.
- Ackerman, Kenneth D., Young J. Edgar: Hoover, the Red Scare, and the Assault on Civil Liberties, New York: Carroll & Graf, 2007.
- Antonov-Ovseyenko, Anton, The Time of Stalin: Portrait of a Tyranny, New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
- Avrich, Paul, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.
- Barzini, Luigi, The Italians, New York: Atheneum, 1964.
- Beevor, Antony, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939, London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2006.
- Bencivenni, Marcella, Italian Immigrant Radical Culture: The Idealism of the Sovversivi in the United States, 1890-1940, New York: New York University Press, 2011.
- Berkhoff, Karel C., Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule, Cambridge MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004.
- Bonanno, Bill, and Gary B. Abromovitz, The Last Testament of Bill Bonanno: The Final Secrets of a Life in the Mafia, New York: Harper, 2011.
- Bonanno, Joseph, with Sergio Lalli, A Man of Honor: The Autobiography of Joseph Bonanno, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
- Craig, Gordon A., Germany 1866-1945, New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
- Cressey, Paul Goalby, The Taxi-Dance Hall: A Sociological Study in Commercialized Recreation & City Life, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932.
- Critchley, David, The Origin of Organized Crime in America: The New York City Mafia 1891-1931, New York: Routledge, 2009.
- Dewey, Thomas E., Twenty Against the Underworld, Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, 1974.
- Dickie, John, Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
- Ehrmann, Herbert B., The Case That Will Not Die: Commonwealth Vs. Sacco and Vanzetti, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1969.
- Ehrmann, Herbert B., The Untried Case: The Sacco-Vanzetti Case and the Morelli Gang, New York: The Vanguard Press, 1933.
- Elliott, Robert G., and Albert R. Beatty, Agent of Death, New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1940.
- Flynn, William J., The Barrel Mystery, New York: James A. McCann Company, 1919.
- Gabler, Neal, Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
- Gallagher, Dorothy, All the Right Enemies: The Life and Murder of Carlo Tresca, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1988.
- Gage, Beverly, The Day Wall Street Exploded, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Gentile, Nick, with Felice Chilante, Vita di Capomafia, Rome: Crescenzi Allendorf, 1993.
- Hagedorn, Ann, Savage Peace: Hope and Fear in America 1919, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007.
- Helpern, Milton, M.D., with Bernard Knight, M.D., Autopsy: The Memoirs of Milton Helpern, the World's Greatest Medical Detective, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977.
- Hunt, Thomas, and Martha Macheca Sheldon, Deep Water: Joseph P. Macheca and the Birth of the American Mafia, Second Edition, Createspace: 2010.
- Jackson, Brian A., editor, The Challenge of Domestic Intelligence in a Free Society, Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 2009.
- Kempster, John W., The Great Conflict Between Right and Might, New York: James Kempster Printing Company, 1914.
- Lardner, Thomas, and Thomas Reppetto, NYPD: A City and its Police, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000.
- Lawes, Warden Lewis E., Meet the Murderer!, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940.
- Lowenthal, Max, The Federal Bureau of Investigation, New York: William Sloane Associates, 1950.
- Maas, Peter, The Valachi Papers, New York: Putnam, 1968.
- McCormick, Charles H., Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers, New York: University Press of America, 2005.
- Murray, Robert K., Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919-1920, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
- Nevins, Allan, Herbert Lehman and His Era, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963.
- Pasley, Fred D., Not Guilty: The Story of Samuel S. Leibowitz, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1933.
- Petacco, Arrigo, translated by Charles Lam Markmann, Joe Petrosino, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1974.
- Peterson, Virgil W., The Mob: 200 Years of Organized Crime in New York, Ottawa IL: Green Hill Publishers, 1983.
- Pitkin, Thomas Monroe and Francesco Cordasco, The Black Hand: A Chapter in Ethnic Crime, Totowa NJ: Littlefield, Adams & Co., 1977.
- Poulsen, Ellen, The Case Against Lucky Luciano: New York's Most Sensational Vice Trial, Little Neck, NY: Clinton Cook Publishing Corp., 2007.
- Powell, Hickman, Lucky Luciano: The Man Who Organized Crime in America, New York: Barnes and Noble, 2006 (reprint of 1939 work).
- Radelet, Michael L., Hugo Adam Bedau and Constance E. Putnam, In Spite of Innocence, Northeastern University Press, 1992.
- Rapoport, David C., editor, Terrorism: Critical Concepts in Political Science, New York: Routledge, 2006.
- Reynolds, Quentin, Courtroom: The Story of Samuel S. Leibowitz, New York: Farrar, Straus and Company, 1950.
- Roux, Onorato, La Prima Regina d'Italia, Milano: Carlo Aliprandi, 1901.
- Turcato, Davide, Italian anarchism as a transnational movement, 1885-1915, Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, 2007.
- Turkus, Burton B., and Sid Feder, Murder, Inc.: The Story of the Syndicate, reprint of 1951 edition, New York: Da Capo Press, 1992.
- Ungar, Sanford J., FBI: An Uncensored Look Behind the Walls, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1976.
- United States Treasury Department Bureau of Narcotics, Mafia: The Government's Secret File on Organized Crime, New York: Collins, 2007.
- Zaccaria, Antonio, I Due Primi Re dell'Italia Unita, Bologna: Ditta Nicola Zanichelli, 1903.
- Zimmer, Kenyon, The Whole World is Our Country: Immigration and Anarchism in the United States, 1885-1940, doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 2010.
- Elliott, Robert G., as told to Albert R. Beatty, "...And may God have mercy on your soul," Collier's, Sept. 24, 1938.
- Elliott, Robert G., as told to Albert R. Beatty, "As humane as possible" Collier's, Oct. 15, 1938.
- Elliott, Robert G., as told to Albert R. Beatty, "I am against capital punishment," Collier's, Oct. 22, 1938.
- Flynn, William J., "On the trail of the anarchists," Ogden UT Standard-Examiner, March 12, 1922, p. 2.
- Flynn, William J., "The Barrel Murder Mystery solved," Washington Post, April 26, 1914, p. 5.
- Flynn, William J., "The long arm of the Black Hand," Washington Post, June 6, 1914, p. 6.
- Frankfurter, Felix, "The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti," Atlantic, March 1, 1927.
- Hohenberg, John, "Harlem: Do something about it," New York Post Magazine, Nov. 1, 1946.
- Howard, Jane, "Wrong man in jail," LIFE, May 15, 1964.
- Hunt, Thomas and Michael A. Tona, "Cleveland convention was to be Masseria coronation," Informer: The Journal of American Mafia History, January 2010.
- Markman, Stephen J., and Paul G. Cassell, "Protecting the innocent: A response to the Bedau-Radelet study," Stanford Law Review, Vol. 41, No. 1, November 1988.
- Stone, Marla, "Staging Fascism: The Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution," Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 28, No. 2, April 1993.
- Warner, Richard N., "The Masserias of Cleveland," Informer: The Journal of American Mafia History, January 2010.
- Warner, Richard, Angelo Santino and Lennert Van`t Riet, "The Early New York Mafia: An Alternative Theory," Informer: The History of American Crime and Law Enforcement, May 2014.
Hundreds of wire service and local news stories from the pages of these publications:
Albany NY Knickerbocker News,
Barre Montpelier VT Times Argus,
Bridgeport CT Telegram,
Brooklyn Daily Eagle,
Buffalo Courier Express,
Burlington VT Weekly Free Press,
Chicago Day Book,
Clearfield PA Progress,
Detroit Free Press,
Long Island NY Daily Press,
Middlebury VT Register,
Nevada State Journal,
New Orleans Daily Democrat,
New Orleans Daily Picayune,
New Orleans Daily States,
New Orleans Item,
New Orleans Republican,
New Orleans Times,
New York Age,
New York Daily News,
New York Daily Tribune,
New York Evening Star,
New York Evening World,
New York Herald,
New York Post,
New York Sun,
New York Times,
New York Tribune,
New York World,
Ogden UT Standard-Examiner,
Olean NY Times Herald,
Poughkeepsie NY Eagle-News,
Poughkeepsie NY Star-Enterprise,
Reading PA Times,
Richmond VA Dispatch,
Rockaway Beach NY Wave,
Salem OR Daily Capital Journal,
San Francisco Call,
St. Johnsbury VT Caledonian,
St. Paul MN Globe,
Staten Island NY Advance,
Trenton NJ Times,
Washington Evening Times,
Woodstock VT Spirit of the Age.
- "Conversation of informant with Sberna," Bureau of Investigation Report, Jan. 19, 1920, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Section Files, 1909-1921, Roll 948, p. 1517-1518.
- "Opinion of John A. Osborn, Commissioner," Executive Document No. 20, Report from President Chester A. Arthur to the U.S. Senate, United States Senate, 47th Congress, 1st Session, Dec. 19, 1881.
- Bagg, G. Ray, Daily Reports, April 8, 9, 17, June 29, 1895, Department of the Treasury, United States Secret Service Daily Reports, R.G. No. 87, Roll 16, Vol. 6, National Archives.
- Barbera, Joseph A., "Joseph or Guiseppe Sabano or Sbano," Bureau of Investigation Report, March 16, 1920, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Old German Files 1909-1921, Joseph Sberna #8000-382364, Anarchist Activities, Roll 837; "In Re: Bomb Outrages of June 2nd, 1919," Bureau of Investigation Report, April 29, 1920, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Section Files, 1909-1921, Roll 948.
- Bureau of Investigation Reports, Jan. 5, 8, 14, 1920, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Section Files, 1909-1921, Roll 948.
- Charles Sberma [sic] prisoner file, No. 95270, Sing Sing Prison, New York State Archives.
- Davis, M.J. (Boston), "Bomb Outrages of June 2nd, 1919," Bureau of Investigation Report, March 22, 1920, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Old German Files 1909-1921, Joseph Sberna #8000-382364, Anarchist Activities, Roll 837, p. 10-11.
- Flynn, James P., "La Cosa Nostra," FBI Report no. 92-6054-324, NARA Record no. 124-10278-10231, July 1, 1963; "The Criminal Commission, et al, New York Division," FBI report, file no. 92-6054-127, NARA record no. 124-10216-10235, Dec. 19, 1962.
- Flynn, William J., Daily Reports, April 13, 14, 16, 1903, Vol. 9; March 21, 1904, Vol. 11; Aug. 6-7, 10-11, Sep. 6, 10, 21-23, Oct. 6-7, 1909, Vol. 27; Nov. 13, 15, 19, 22, Dec. 12-13, 16-20, 1909, Jan. 4, 18, 26-31, Feb. 1-4, 7-8, 1910, Vol. 28; Feb. 10-11, 14-17, 19, 1910, Vol. 29; Feb. 21, 22, 24, March 25, 1912, Vol. 34, Department of the Treasury, United States Secret Service Daily Reports, R.G. No. 87, National Archives.
- Giuseppe Morello Prison File, #2882, Atlanta Federal Prison, National Archives.
- Haas, J.L. (New York City), "In Re: Joseph Sberna - Bomb Outrages of June 2, 1919," Bureau of Investigation Report, April 26, 1920, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Old German Files, 1909-1921, Joseph Sberna #8000-382364, Anarchist Activities, Roll 837, p. 13-15.
- Henry, John J., Daily Report, Feb. 24, 27, 1910, Department of the Treasury, United States Secret Service Daily Reports, R.G. No. 87, Vol. 29, National Archives.
- Ignatio Lupo, appellant, v. Fred Zerbst, appellee, United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, No. 8471, Oct. 19, 1937.
- Ignazio Lupo Prison File, #2883, Atlanta Federal Prison, National Archives.
- John A. Philbrick & Bro. v. Ignatz Florio Co-Op. Ass'n among Corleonesi et al., New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, First Department, April 8, 1910, New York Supplement, Volume 122, (New York State Reporter, Vol. 156), April 25-June 13, 1910, St. Paul: West Publishing Co., 1910.
- John A. Philbrick & Bro. v. The Ignatz Florio Co-Operative Association Among Corleonesi, et al., New York State Supreme Court, Appellate Division - First Department, Papers on Appeal from Order, Walton NY: The Reporter Co., 1910.
- Loren J.F. (New York City), "In Re: Joseph Sberna - Italian Anarchist," Bureau of Investigation Report, April 12, 1921, NARA M1085 Bureau of Investigation Section Files, 1909-1921, Joseph Sberna #202600-1549-1, Italian Anarchist, Roll 937, p. 1.
- McCoy, Leonard H., "La Cosa Nostra," FBI report no. 92-6054-740, NARA record no. 124-10205-10471, Aug. 21, 1964.
- Michael DiLeonardo Testimony, United States of America v. John A. Gotti, Jr., 04 CR 00690 SAS-1, District Judge Shira A. Scheindlin, U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, Feb. 22, 2006.
- Naturalization records of Vincenzo Terranova, Ciro Terranova, Nicholas Terranova, Nicolina Salemi.
- New York City birth, death and marriage records.
- New York State Censuses of 1905, 1915, 1925,
- Passenger manifests of S.S. Alsatia, arrived New York City on March 8, 1893; S.S. Berengaria, arrived New York City on Jan. 25, 1933; S.S. Columbia, arrived New York on Feb. 8, 1897; S.S. Dante Alighieri, arrived New York City on May 13, 1922; S.S. La Champagne, arrived New York City on Sept. 30, 1901; S.S. Presidente Wilson, arrived New York on Jan. 18, 1922; S.S. Presidente Wilson, arrived New York on Aug. 11, 1926; S.S. Sardegna, arrived New York City on Sept. 23, 1903; S.S. Trave, arrived New York on Oct. 7, 1902.
- People v. Salvatore Gati, Charles Sberma and John Doe, Court of General Sessions of the County of New York, Complaint no. 195376, 1933, New York Municipal Archives.
- People of the State of New York against Charles Luciano, et al., Record on Appeal, Volume III, Supreme Court of the State of New York, Appellate Division - First Department, 1937,
- People of the State of New York against Salvatore Gati and Charles Sberna, Record on Appeal, Court of Appeals of the State of New York, Cases and Briefs, Sept. 17-Oct. 28, 1938, Vol. 224, New York State Archives.
- Receiving blotters, Sing Sing Prison, Ossining, New York.
- Salvatore Gati prisoner file, No. 95271, Sing Sing Prison, New York State Archives
- Social Security Applications and Claims; Social Security Death Index.
- U.S. Congress, House Rules Committee, "Attorney General A. Mitchel Palmer on Charges Made Against Department of Justice by Louis F. Post and Others," Hearings Before the Committee on Rules, 66th Congress, 2d Session, Part 1, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920.
- U.S. Congress, House Subcommittee of the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, "Communist and Anarchist Deportation Cases," Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, 66th Congress, 2d Session, April 21-24, 1920, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1920.
- U.S. v. Giuseppe Calicchio et al., U.S. Circuit for the Southern District of New York, Criminal Case 2-347, January-February 1910
- U.S. v. Giuseppe Giallonbardo et al, C-2832, U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York.
- United States Censuses of 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930 and 1940.
- Valachi, Joseph, "The Real Thing, Second Government: The Expose and Inside Doings of Cosa Nostra," unpublished manuscript, Joseph Valachi Personal Papers, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, 1964.
- Vermont Vital Records.
- Whitley, R., FBI teletype to Director, file no. 23-2130-233, Oct. 24, 1935; FBI memo to Director, file no. 23-2130-262, Nov. 1, 1935.
- World War I draft registration cards.
- "A brief history of the Modern School," Friends of the Modern School, friendsofthemodernschool.org.
- "Allied intervention in Russia," United States History, u-s-history.com.
- "Allied intervention in Russia, 1918-19," National Archives UK - Spotlights on History, nationalarchives.gov.uk.
- "Caesar B.F. Barra," Political Graveyard, politicalgraveyard.com.
- "Charles Sberna," Wrongly Convicted Database, forejustice.org.
- "Helen Horvath Affidavit," George Morton Levy Papers, July 8, 1936, chuckgreaves.com.
- "History of Lehman Brothers," Lehman Brothers Collection, Harvard Business School, library.hbs.edu/hc/lehman/history.html.
- "Ignazio Lupo," Find A Grave, findagrave.com.
- "Luigi Galleani and the anarchists of Barre;" Barre Montpelier Times Argus, April 30, 2010, timesargus.com.
- "Militia slaughters strikers at Ludlow, Colorado," This Day in History, www.history.com.
- "New York's IED Task Force 1905-1919," Standing Well Back, standingwellback.com, Jan. 17, 2012.
- "Russian Revolution - Facts & Summary," History Channel, history.com/topics/russian-revolution.
- "The Ludlow Massacre," American Experience, www.pbs.org.
- "The nation calls, 1908-1923," A Centennial History, www.fbi.gov.
- "Wilson, John H.A.," NYPD Angels, nypdangels.com.
- "Wrongful convictions," Social Sciences Department, University of Colorado, socsci.colorado.edu /~mciverj /2481_DP_wrongfulconvictions.txt.
- Isidore Zimmerman v. City of New York et al., Supreme Court of New York, Special Term, New York County, 1966, ny.findacase.com.
- Kendris, Thomas N., "Criminal discovery in New York: The effect of the new article 240," Fordham Urban Law Journal, Vol. 8, Issue 4, 1979, p. 731-771, ir.lawnet.fordham.edu.
- Krushelnycky, Askold, "Ukraine: Famine - Survivors recall the horrors of 1933 (Part 2)," Radio Free Europe, www.rferl.org, May 8, 2003.
- Lehman, Herbert H., "The Communist threat," July 29, 1953, 1953 Congressional Record - Appendix, p. A5059, document no. ldpd_leh_0261_0072, Herbert H. Lehman Papers, Special Correspondence Files, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library, lehman.cul.columbia.edu; Letter to Alfred E. Smith, April 3, 1935, document no. ldpd_leh_0849_0055, Herbert H. Lehman Papers, Special Correspondence Files, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library, lehman.cul.columbia.edu; Letter to Allan Nevins, March 16, 1961, document no. ldpd_leh_0679_0137, Herbert H. Lehman Papers, Special Correspondence Files, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library, lehman.cul.columbia.edu.
- Linder, Douglas, "The Scottsboro Boys Trials," law2.umkc.edu.
- Passaic County Historical Society, "Paterson: History," City-Data, www.city-data.com.
- Ray, Robin, "The Italian Job," Seven Days, Oct. 29, 2003, sevendaysvt.com.
- Smele, Dr. Jonathan, "War and Revolution in Russia 1914-1921," BBC-History, bbc.co.uk, March 10, 2011.
- Stackell, Judge Harry, People v. De Renna, Bronc County Court, 166 Misc. 582 (NY Misc. 1938), casetext.com/case/people-v-de-renna.
- Zimmerman v. State of New York, Court of Claims, 76 Misc. 2d 193, 1973, casetext.com.